Masculinity Today: Men's Attitudes To Gender Stereotypes And Violence Against Women.

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
British Embassy Kyiv
Ukrainian Centre for Social Reforms
Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine

Gender inequality is one of the main human rights violations that manifests itself in the unequal opportunities of women and men in various domains of public life, including political representation and decision-making, economic opportunities and access to resources, empowerment in the family and vulnerability to discrimination and violence. The reasons for the unequal distribution of powers of women and men should be sought in the patriarchal norms that establish gender-based social roles and behaviour patterns accepted by the society. In the past, the gender inequality problems were perceived mostly as the womens issues, while gender programs focused on improving the well-being of women. However, over the past decades, there has been a growing recognition of the need to involve men in promoting gender equality, in particular, through active participation in policies to combat and prevent gender-based violence.
One of the ways to start the discussion about the role, responsibilities and potential of men in advancing gender equality is to study the culture of masculinity, as it is responsible for determining and entrenchment of the prevailing mens roles, patterns of behaviour and attitudes. In this way, we recognize that the evolvement of masculine identity is under the permanent pressure of society requiring that mens behaviour should meet certain expectations and norms. Mens socialization starts in the early childhood and faces many impacts, including upbringing and observation of marital relations in the parents family, school environment and relations with peers, information environment and the mass media. Widely accepted norms of male behaviour also determine what traits, attitudes and lifestyle patterns are expected from modern men by the society; these norms are not always favourable to their social well-being and quality of life. In particular, aggression and predisposition to violence are often perceived by most people as the negative aspects of manhood and masculine identity.
This research and publication of the report were supported by the UNFPA, United Nations Population Fund and the UK Government in cooperation with the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine. The findings, conclusions and recommendations. in this report do not necessarily coincide with the official positions of UNFPA or the UK Government.



International Labour Organization
Ukrainian Centre for Social Reforms
State Statistics Service of Ukraine

This report contains the results of the survey on child labour in Ukraine conducted by the Ukrainian Centre for Social Reforms1 jointly with the State Statistics Service of Ukraine2 and the Centre «Social Monitoring» (Annex F) with the technical assistance of the International Labour Organization (ILO).
The purpose of the survey is to expand the knowledge base and improve data on child labour in Ukraine as a part of the national strategy of the elimination of child labour, especially its worst forms.
The survey methodology is based on the Resolution concerning statistics of child labour approved at the 18th International Conference of Labour Statisticians (2008).
The statistical basis of the survey is the results of the Modular Sample population (household) survey on child labour in Ukraine3 (hereinafter referred to as the Modular Child Labour Survey) conducted by the State Statistics Service of Ukraine in October-December 2014 as an attachment to the permanent population (households) sample survey on issues of economic activity (hereinafter referred to as the Labour Force Survey). Modular Sample population (household) survey provided the reliable quantitative estimate of child labour in Ukraine which is representative for the entire territory of Ukraine excluding the temporary occupied Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol City.
The second source of information for the estimates was the sociological survey of 402 children working on the street (hereinafter referred as a rapid assessment) was conducted by the Centre «Social Monitoring» in March 31-April 14, 2015 and May 08-28, 2015 in 13 regions of Ukraine. The results of the sociological survey yield information of prime importance on the situation with regard to child labour among the most vulnerable categories of children – children working on the street. However, the estimates obtained based on this information are qualitative characteristics and cannot be in absolute terms extrapolated to the entire sample of children in Ukraine who worked on the street.



This research and report publishing were supported by the UNFPA, United Nations Population Fund and Department for International Development of the Government of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (DFID). Report findings, conclusions and recommendations do not represent the official position of UNFPA or DFID.

Violence against women is one of the most prevalent forms of discrimination and a major violation of human rights taking roots in historically unequal power relations between women and men. Besides being directly harmful to health and well-being of survivors, violence against women yields significant costs for the society measured by monetary, labour and non-material losses, and has short-term, long-term or postponed effects. The economic costs of violence against women are burdening different actors in a society, including survivors of violence, their abusers and family members, employers that face losses due to disability of employees, public and non-governmental organizations that provide services to survivors, insurance funds and budgets of different levels, all taxpayers, and all in all the entire economy. Indirect costs linked with negative emotional effects of violence (e.g. stress disorders, psychological damage to children who witnessed violence, broken survivors family relations and decreased quality of life) cannot be currently measured in terms of economic equivalent.



Gender-based violence (GBV) is regarded among the most common human rights violations, occurring all over the world. According to empirical evidence, GBV disproportionately affects women because of the unequal distribution of powers and resources between women and men, womens economic vulnerability and their dependent position in the family. Women and girls are not only facing high risks of GBV, but suffer from a lack of capacity and resources needed to prevent or avoid situations of GBV, to seek justice and support. They are also particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of violence, including unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortions and the issues of reproductive health, the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection. Psychological stress and attributes of post-traumatic syndrome can lead to long-term negative consequences that affect all dimensions of womens lives.
The study was conducted by experts of the Ukrainian Centre for Social Reforms in the government-controlled areas of Donetsk and Lugansk oblasts, and in Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhya and Kharkiv oblasts hosting the main inflow of IDPs. The fieldwork was implemented by the permanent network of interviewers of the sociological agency Centre for Social Monitoring in September and October of 2015. To assess respondents personal experience of GBV and to estimate and compare their vulnerability to manifestations of violence during the conflict, two target groups of respondents were selected: women among IDPs and women among permanent population of the regions. The survey was conducted by specially trained interviewers in accordance with all technical standards and ethical considerations of similar surveys; to raise population awareness of GBV and provide referrals in cases of need, relevant information on the available services for GBV survivors was updated in all regions covered by the survey.
The results of the study translated into a range of recommendations and proposals for further development of policies on GBV which can be applied at different levels of decision-making by representatives of various sectors and institutions of civil society involved in GBV response.



The Ukraine Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was carried out in 2012 by the State Statistics Service in collaboration with the Ukrainian Institute for Social Reforms and StatInformConsulting. Financial and technical support was provided by the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF), Swiss Cooperation Office in Ukraine (SDC) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). MICS is an international household survey programme developed by UNICEF. The Ukraine MICS was conducted as part of the fourth global round of MICS surveys (MICS4). MICS provides up-to-date information on the situation of children and women and measures key indicators that allow countries to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other internationally agreed upon commitments. Additional information on the global MICS project may be obtained from HYPERLINK
Suggested citation: State Statistics Service and Ukrainian Center for Social Reforms, 2013. Ukraine Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2012, Final Report. Kyiv, Ukraine: State Statistics Committee and the Ukrainian Center for Social Reforms.



The main purpose of the research was to study features of the population ageing process in Ukraine as relevant to women, peculiarities and characteristics of the socio-economic situation of older women, to identify and substantiate their social and economic needs and challenges, to develop conceptual grounds and strategic directions of state policy concerning older women, to suggest practical and feasible actions at the policy and service delivery levels to improve the quality of life and social well-being of older women in Ukraine.


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